Before moving on to calculating caloric intakes from different foods, it is helpful to know the other groups of macronutrients.
Proteins are the constituents of our tissues, but they also participate in immune function and enzymes and hormones. They are the basis for maintaining muscle mass, which is also made up of protein.
1g of protein contains four calories.
The foods listed in the protein group are meat, eggs, fish, dairy products, soy and legumes (also rich in carbohydrates).
Carbohydrates, or carbohydrates, include sugars, starches and fiber. Carbohydrates are the priority source of energy for the body because they break down into glucose, directly usable by the body; or glycogen stored in the muscles and the liver for later use.
1g of sugar contains four calories.
Foods belonging to the carbohydrate group include cereals, fruits, tubers, legumes and grains.
Fats are necessary for the body to produce hormones, the regulation of inflammatory processes, absorption of nutrients, and body temperature maintenance. It is also an essential source of energy.
Each gram of fat provides nine calories,which is more than double the protein or carbohydrates.
The foods richest in fat are oils, butter, nuts, fatty meat, fatty fish and avocado.
Why calculate your macros?
Calculating macros seems to be a new concept as it is increasingly used in the nutrition sector. However, dietetic professionals have always applied this calculation in order to determine the calorie needs of a person according to his goals and specificities. We may therefore have to calculate our macronutrients for different reasons.
For example, it is important to know on the one hand his daily caloric needs and what our food brings us.
It is considered that a man of average height will need 2000 calories per day and a woman 1600, but one can also make an even more thorough calculation according to her height, are weight, age and degree of physical activity (see below).
From this base, one can quite arrange a nutritional plan deficient in calories in order to lose weight. On the other hand, the same applies to the energy inputs necessary for performance and mass gain muscular.
We each have different needs,as well as very clear objectives. Our daily caloric intake must therefore be calculated to measure.
How to calculate your macros?
Define your calorie requirements
Calculating macros implies a precise knowledge of our caloric needs, which vary according to our gender, age, height and weight. To find out your daily calorie requirements, apply the Mifflin-St Jeor formula:
- Men: 10 x weight (in kg) + 6.25 x height (in cm) – 5x age (in years) + 5
- Women:10 x weight (in kg) + 6.25 x height (in cm) – 5x age (in years) – 161
We can then multiply the result to obtain an even more precise figure, according to its degree of activity:
- Sedentary:x 1.2
- Slightly active:x 1.375
- Moderately active:x 1.55
- Very active:x 1.725
- More than 2 hours of intensive sport per day:x 1.9
Define macronutrient amounts
In addition to the number of calories needed per day and per person, knowing how to define the distribution of nutrients in your diet is decisive to obtain a specific and effective diet plan.
To maintain your weight or achieve ideal body weight,the ratio of macronutrients is as follows: 45 to 65% carbohydrates, 20 to 35% fat and 10 to 35% protein.
To lose weight,a ratio of 35% carbohydrates, 30% fat and 35% protein is recommended. These ratios may be revised upwards or downwards depending on the type of plan chosen.
For example, if you decide to follow a ketogenic diet to lose weight, the ratio will be 10% carbohydrates, 50% fat, and 40% protein.
If you prefer a high protein diet, the ratio will be 10% carbohydrates, 25% fat and 65% protein.
To gain muscle mass,protein and carbohydrate intakes must be higher, as well as caloric needs. The macronutrient intakes will then be as follows: 50% carbohydrates, 40% protein and 10% fat.
For a high-level athlete whose energy needs are very high, a ratio of 50% carbohydrates, 30% protein and 20% fat will be advised.
An example calculation
You are a 32 year old woman measuring 1.65m,you weigh 78kg and run 1 time a week.
Your daily caloric needs are as follows:
(10 x 78) + (6.25 x 165) – (5x 32) – 161 = 1490.25 calories x 1.2 = 1788 calories
To lose weight and reach a shape weight of about 65kg, you need to consume less than 2173 calories per day.
If you have chosen the cyclic ketogenic diet, the most effective for weight loss and do not regain weight, the calculation of your macros will be as follows, based on 1800 calories per day (a deficit of 373 calories):
- 10% carbohydrates: 180 calories, or 45g of carbohydrates (4 calories per gram)
- 50% fat: 900 calories, or 100g of fat (9 calories per gram)
- 40% protein: 720 calories, or 180g of protein (4 calories per gram)
Calculating your macros may seem restrictive at first glance but this exercise is essential if you want to start on concrete and very personal values.
Based on your weight, height, age and level of physical activity, you will find the caloric intake you need. It’s up to you to decide where to do it. regime guide you according to your fitness, health or performance goals.